The Indonesian archipelago of 17,000 islands, home to flora and fauna of two different types of origin. The western part is the Indo-Malayan region, the northeast, including the Pacific and Australia. Although the land covers only 1.3% of all land on earth, Indonesia Biodiversity Facts, Indonesia has a spectacular and unique flora and fauna.
Indonesia also has remarkable biodiversity, Indonesia Biodiversity Facts,: 10% of the world’s flowering species, 12% of the world’s mammal species, 16% of all reptile and amphibian species, 17% of all bird species, and 25% of all known fish species human.
Indonesia’s forests are known as the most species-rich forests: palm (447 species, 225 of which are not in the rest of the world), more than 400 dipterocarp species (the most valuable commercial timber species in southeast Asia), Indonesia Biodiversity Facts, are estimated to contain 25,000 species of flowering plants.
Indonesia is also rich in wildlife, Indonesia Biodiversity Facts,: the richest in the world for mammals (515 species, 36% of which are endemic), richest swallowtail butterflies (121 species, 44% of them endemic), the world’s richest reptiles (more than 600 species) the richest of birds (1519 species, 28% of them endemic), amphibians (270 species), and flowering plants.
The Indonesian Sea is an important highway and habitat for the world’s marine mammals. From about 87 species of marine mammals in the world, as many as 32 types of marine mammals of groups of whales, dolphins and dugongs can be found in Indonesia, Indonesia Biodiversity Facts, including the Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) which is currently endangered under the IUCN Red List category.
Of the 596 species of sharks and rays of the world, 157 of them are found in Indonesia, including the sharks known as the world’s largest marine species, the Whale Shark (Rhicodon types) and two charismatic rays, namely the Oceanic Panta Manta (Manta birostris) and Pari Manta Koral (Manta alfredi), 6 of 7 species of turtles in the world’s oceans, Indonesia Biodiversity Facts, including leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) known as oceanic sea reptile species.
Indonesia’s coral reefs reach 70 thousand sq km or about 14% of the world’s coral reefs. Of the 132 species of economically valuable fish in Indonesia, 32 of them live on coral reefs and healthy coral reefs (in a seascape area) can produce 3-10 tons of fish per square kilometer per year. The Indonesian sea, Indonesia Biodiversity Facts, has an exclusive economic zone covering an area of 5.8 million sq km and is supported by mangrove forests.
Indonesia has approximately 1500 species of Bryophyta of about 16,000 species of moss in the world consisting of leaf moss, liverworts, and horns. Some types of Bryophyta that exist in Indonesia include, Indonesia Biodiversity Facts,: Meteorium sp., Marchantia sp., Spiridens sp., And Calymperes sp..
Indonesia has 1,250 species of nail plants from 13,000 species of nail plants in the world. These nail plants can be found everywhere because nail plants can live on the ground, dead wood, trees, even on rocks. Some nail plants that exist in Indonesia include: Selaginella sp., Lycopodiella cernua, Hymnophillum, and Gleichenia. Nail plants also have economic value, Indonesia Biodiversity Facts, such as Asplenium nidus (bird nest nest) and Platycerium (deer antler horn) which is used as an ornamental plant.
Indonesia also has endemic plants not owned by other countries, including: carrion flower (Amorphophallus titanum) Raflesia Arnoldi in Bengkulu, Indonesia Biodiversity Facts, West Sumatra and Aceh; Raflesia part-time in Nusakambangan and Pangandaran; and Raflesia Borneensisi in Kalimantan.
In addition, Indonesia has unique plants such as Cempaka (Mitchell sp.), Salak (Salacca zalacca), durian (Durio zibethinus), kedongdong (Canarium ovatum), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), and mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia). Some examples of gymnosperms, Indonesia Biodiversity Facts, that exist in Indonesia are Pinus merkusii, Ginkgo biloba, and Cycas.
Indonesia has 4,000 species of timber trees and 267 species, of which are commercial woods that are categorized in 120 kinds of trade names. Some of them can grow in primary forest such as, Indonesia Biodiversity Facts,: Pterocymcium spp., Dyera spp., Alstonia spp., Shorea leptosula, S. Leptoclados, S. Stenoptera, S. parvifolia, Duabanga moluccana, Tetrameles nudiflora, Octometes sumatrana, Agathis spp. And Araucaria spp.