The word “Bandung” comes from the word bendung or dam due to the Citarum river terbendungnya by the lava of Mount Tangkuban Perahu which then formed a lake. The legend told by old people in Bandung says that the name “Bandung” is taken from an airplane consisting of two boats tied side by side called a boat Bandung used by the Regent of Bandung, R.A. Wiranatakusumah II, Bandung Indonesia Facts, to navigate the Citarum in search of a new district meeting place to replace the old capital at Dayeuhkolot.
Bandung City has begun to be used as a residential area for the Dutch East Indies colonial government, through the Governor General of that time Herman Willem Daendels, issued a decree dated 25 September 1810 on the construction of facilities and infrastructure for this region. Later this event, Bandung Indonesia Facts, is immortalized as the anniversary of Bandung.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the VOC established a small plantation area in a fertile and prosperous area of Bandung, therefore, in 1786 it was again constructed a supply line connecting, Bandung Indonesia Facts, Jakarta, Bogor, Bandung, Cianjur, Cirebon and Sumedang.
Louis Napoleon was then the leader of the Netherlands and his colony ordered Daendels to improve the security system of the island of Java so that they could withstand the threat from Britain, then built a 1000-km road connecting the west and east coast of Java, and because the northern part of West Java in it’s still filled. By puddles and swamps, Bandung Indonesia Facts, the road that was built was diverted to Bandung and was named Asia-Afrika Road when completed in 1810.
On December 8, 1941, Japan suddenly invaded Southeast Asia and bombed Pearl Harbor, the largest US Naval base in the Pacific. Five hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Bandung Indonesia Facts, the Dutch Indies Governor Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachhouwer declared war on Japan.
On March 1, 1942, Japan had landed a detachment led by Colonel Toshinori Shoji with a force of 5,000 in Eretan, west of Cirebon. On the same day, Colonel Shoji has succeeded in occupying Subang. Momentum that they use by continuing to break into the airfield Kalijati, 40 Km from Bandung. After a brief battle, Bandung Indonesia Facts, the Japanese forces seized the airfield.
On March 5, 1942, the capital of Batavia (Jakarta) was declared an ‘Open City’ which meant that the city would not be defended by the Dutch. Soon after the fall of Batavia into their hands, the Japanese expeditionary troops marched south and succeeded in occupying Buitenzorg (Bogor). On the same date, Bandung Indonesia Facts, the Japanese army moved from Kalijati to invade Bandung from the north.
At first the defensive at Ciater, so the Dutch East Indies troops back to Lembang and make the city as the last defense. But this place, Bandung Indonesia Facts, was not successfully maintained so that on March 7, 1942 controlled by the Japanese army.
With unconditional surrender by Lieutenant General H. Terpoorten, Commander of the Dutch East Indies Armed Forces on behalf of the United States Armed Forces in Indonesia to the Japanese expeditionary army under Lieutenant General Hitoshi Imamura’s leadership on 8 March 1942, Bandung Indonesia Facts, the end of the Dutch East Indies rule in Indonesia and officially began the power of Japanese occupation in Indonesia.
The fall of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 and Nagasaki on 9 August 1945 which resulted in Japan giving unconditional surrender to the allies. This was also the turning point of the Indonesian struggle, Bandung Indonesia Facts, which culminated in the declaration of Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945.
British troops part of the MacDonald Brigade arrived in Bandung in October 1945. The Bandung fighters were aggressively grabbing weapons and power from the hands of the Japanese, Bandung Indonesia Facts, who had surrendered to the allied forces.
The newly arrived ally asked the Indonesians to surrender all Japanese disarmed weapons. This is confirmed by the ultimatum issued by the Allies. The ultimatum content is that the Japanese disarmed weapon immediately handed over to the Allies and the people of Indonesia immediately emptied the city of Bandung no later than 29 November 1945, Bandung Indonesia Facts, with the reason for the security of the people.
On the night of November 21, 1945, TKR (People’s Security Army) and some Indonesian struggle bodies launched an attack on British positions in the northern part of Bandung. Hotel Homann and Hotel Preanger, Bandung Indonesia Facts, that used the enemy as the headquarters also did not escape the attack.
In response to this attack, three days later, MacDonald delivered an ultimatum to the Governor of West Java. This ultimatum contains for North Bandung emptied by the people of Indonesia, as well as from the armed forces. Indonesian people who hear this ultimatum ignore it. Therefore, Bandung Indonesia Facts, a battle broke out against allies and warriors of Bandung on December 6, 1945.
On March 23, 1946, the allies again repeated the ultimatum. Allied ordered that TRI (Army of the Republic of Indonesia) immediately leave the city of Bandung. Hearing the ultimatum, Bandung Indonesia Facts, the Indonesian government in Jakarta then instigates TRI to empty the city of Bandung for people’s security.
However, this order is different from that given from the TRI headquarters in Yogyakarta. From Yogyakarta, out instruction to continue to survive in Bandung. In this period, the allies also divide Bandung into two sectors, namely North Bandung and South Bandung. Then, Bandung Indonesia Facts, the allies ask the people of Indonesia to leave North Bandung.
Conditions in the city of Bandung, so increasingly precarious. The situation of this city so gripping and filled with people who panic. The fighters were also confused in following different instructions from the center of Jakarta as well as Yogyakarta. In the end, Bandung Indonesia Facts, the Indonesian fighters decided to launch a massive attack on the allies on 24 March 1946.
Indonesian fighters attack allied posts. They also burned all the contents of the city of North Bandung. After successfully destroyed the city of North Bandung, then they went to resign from North Bandung. This action was conducted by 200,000 people for 7 hours. Bandung situation, Bandung Indonesia Facts, is filled with flames like oceans is what makes the event dubbed as the Bandung Sea of Fire.
The Bandung fighters chose to burn Bandung and then leave it for some reason. The purpose is to prevent Allied soldiers and Dutch NICA soldiers from using the city of Bandung, Bandung Indonesia Facts, as their strategic military headquarters in the Indonesian War of Independence.
This Bandung burning operation is said to be a “bumihangus” operation. The decision to destroy the city of Bandung was taken through a meeting of Madjelis Persatoean Perdjoangan Priangan (MP3), Bandung Indonesia Facts, conducted in front of all the forces of the struggle of the Republic of Indonesia, dated 23 March 1946.
The result of the deliberation was then announced by Colonel Abdoel Haris Nasoetion as Commander III of TRI Division III. He also ordered the evacuation of Bandung. Then, that very day, Bandung Indonesia Facts, a large group of Bandung people flowed. The city burning took place at night while the residents left Bandung.